Given the letters a password contains and the total length of it but not knowing the order and the numbers of each letter, you are asked to give the number of all possibilities.

Note that each letter appears at least once. This is a dynamic programming problems. Let denotes with the first th letters, how many different ways we have for a password of length . Then we have iterating formular:

Where is the combination numbers of picking objects from different objects.

The key to pass the large test set is that we have to calcualte a large combination numbers such as with modulo of a prime number 1000000007 correctly. As in the calculation of combination numbers we need to do divide, so we can not just do modulo in each step. Instead we make use of a proposition that for while is a prime number, there is a

We calucate in ahead of time and get it directly when we calculate .

import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;

static private long MOD = 1000000007;
static private long[][] combs = new long;
private static long pow(long a, long b) {
long r = 1;
while (b > 0) {
if ((b & 1) == 1) r = (r * a) % MOD;
a = (a * a) % MOD;
b >>= 1;
}
return r;
}
private static void makeCombs() {
long[] minverse = new long;
for (int i = 1; i < 105; i++) {
minverse[i] = pow(i, MOD - 2);
}
for (int n = 0; n < 105; n++) {
combs[n] = 1;
int mid = n / 2;
for (int m = 1; m <= mid; m++) {
combs[n][m] = ((combs[n][m - 1] * minverse[m]) % MOD * (n - m + 1)) % MOD;
}
for (int m = mid + 1; m <= n; m++) {
combs[n][m] = combs[n][n - m];
}
}
}
private static void solve(int M, int N) {
long[] dp = new long[N + 1];
Arrays.fill(dp, 1);
dp = 0;
for (int i = 1; i < M; i++) {
for (int j = N; j > i; j--) {
dp[j] = 0;
for (int k = j - 1; k >= i; k--) {
dp[j] = (dp[j] + dp[k] * combs[j][k]) % MOD;
}
}
}
System.out.println(dp[N]);
}
public static void main(String[] args) {
Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in);
int T = in.nextInt();
makeCombs();
for (int t = 0; t < T; t++) {
int M = in.nextInt(), N = in.nextInt();
System.out.printf("Case #%d: ", t + 1);
solve(M, N);
}
}
}