Invert Binary Tree

It is a simple problem, but also famous on Twitter. Please refer to the problem description on LeetCode.

There are three points should be noted about this problem:

  1. Be careful of different description. Let's say we have a Binary Search Tree, the order of items in the tree is ascending and we'd like to transform it into descending. How can we do this? It is actually equavalent to invert this binary tree.
  2. The recursive solution is simple. But how about the tree is very high and you will get an StackOverflowError if you are using recursion? The solution using a stack and without recursion should be mastered.
  3. How about the tree is not a binary tree? Please make sure if the tree you meet in an interview is a binary tree or not. If it is not a binary tree, recursion solution might be as simple. But how can you do it without recursion?

Below are a piece of sample code for inverting a binary tree:

 * Definition for a binary tree node.
 * public class TreeNode {
 *     int val;
 *     TreeNode left;
 *     TreeNode right;
 *     TreeNode(int x) { val = x; }
 * }
public class InvertBinaryTree {
    public TreeNode invertTree(TreeNode root) {
        if (root == null) return root;

        Stack<TreeNode> stack = new Stack<TreeNode>();

        TreeNode p = root;
        TreeNode q = null, r = null;
        while (p != null) {
            p = p.left;

        while (!stack.isEmpty()) {
            p = stack.pop();
            q = p.right;
            while (q != null) {
                q = q.left;
            r = p.right;
            p.right = p.left;
            p.left = r;

        return root;